The Arctic: Exploration Timeline

Arctic discovery timeline

Arctic Timeline: Ancient Times from 330 BC to 1000 AD
Arctic Timeline from 1594-1610
Arctic Timeline from 1725-1779
Arctic Timeline from 1776-1779
Arctic Timeline from 1819-1831
Arctic Timeline from 1845-1873
Arctic Timeline 1878
Arctic Timeline from 1879-1882
Arctic Timeline from 1882-1884
Arctic Timeline from 1886-1909
Arctic Timeline from 1893-1895
Arctic Timeline from 1903-1905
Arctic Timeline from 1910-1915
Arctic Timeline from 1918-1925
Arctic Timeline 1930
Arctic Timeline 1958
Arctic Timeline from 1970-1990s
Arctic Timeline from 1993-1998
Arctic Timeline from 2007-2008
Sir Hubert Wilkins (center) (1931)
Sir Hubert Wilkins (center) (1931). Image courtesy Arctic Submarine Laboratory.

1930
Sir Hubert Wilkins acquires a submarine from the US Navy and prepares her for an undersea expedition to the North Pole, renaming her Nautilus. The leader of the scientific staff is Harald Sverdrup, who is to make measurements from a specially rigged diving compartment. The submarine heads into the pack ice north of Spitsbergen in August 1931, but the diving plane becomes damaged. The submarine can no longer cruise very far under the ice, and so can make oceanographic observations only outside of the ice pack. However, the Nautilus does make several short runs under ice, demonstrating that submarines can operate in and under the ice pack.

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